Ecosystem and Ecological Services; Need for Biodiversity Conservation-A Critical Review
Asian Journal of Biology,
Biodiversity and ecosystems are closely related concepts. Biodiversity provides numerous ecosystem services that are crucial and important to human well-being at present and in the future. The review aim to explain the Ecosystem services, and need for conservation of biodiversity. Ecosystem services (also called environmental services or nature’s services) are benefits provided by ecosystems to humans, which contribute to making human life both possible and worth living. Human kind fully depends on the earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide, such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfillment and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed these ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever before, so that growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber and fuel can be met. Pollution through the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater and solid waste (e.g. plastics) exacerbates the related problems. Environmental pollution results from mishandling, deliberate disposal, spilling and leakage of waste products, such as gasoline, lubricating oils, diesel fuel, heating oil’s, used or spent engine oils, animal wastes, human excreta, certain dissolved organic compound (e.g. urea, carbohydrate etc.), and organic salts such as nitrates, soap, phosphates of detergent, sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. Under natural process most of the biodegradable pollutants of sewage are rapidly decomposed, but when they accumulate in large quantities, they create problems, i.e., when their input into environment exceeds the decomposition or disposal capacity. Ecosystem health is inherently linked to water management, sanitation and agriculture as these aspects influence water availability and quality. The loss of biodiversity can reduce the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. Therefore, sustainable sanitation and water management is crucial for a more sustainable ecosystem management in the future.
- ecological services
How to Cite
Giller KE, Beare MH, Lavelle P, Izac AM, Swift MJ. Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function. Appl Soil Ecol. 1997;6:3-16.
Hooper DU. Effects of plant composition and diversity on nutrient cycling. Ecological Monographs. 1998;68:121–149.
Gower ST. Productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. In: Encyclopedia of Global Change HA Mooney, J Canadell, (Eds.), Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 2002;516–521.
De Groot RS, Wilson MA, Boumans RMJ. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecol Econ. 2002;41: 393–408.
Díaz S, Fargione J, Chapin FS, Tilman D. Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. Plos Biol. 2006;4(8):277-282.
Balvanera P, Pfisterer AB, Buchmann N, He JS, Nakashizuka T, Raffaelli D, et al. Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecol Lett. 2006;9:1146–1156.
Foley JA. Global consequences of land-use. Science. 2005;309:570-574.
Butchart SHM, Walpole M, Collen B, et al. Global biodiversity: Indicators of recent declines. Science. 2010;328:1164–1168. Available:https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1187512
Costanza R, de d’Arge R, Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, et al. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature. 1997;387:253–260.
Altieri MA. The Ecological Role of Biodiversity in Agroecosystem, Agriculture. Ecosystems and Environment. 1999;74: 19–31.
Costanza R, D’Arge R, De Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, et al. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature. 1997;387:253–260.
Daily GC. Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington D.C. 1997;392.
Lant CL, Ruhl JB, Kraft SE. The Tragedy of Ecosystem Services. Bioscience. 2008; 58:969-974.
Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs. 2005;75:3-35.
Fennessy MS, Jacobs AD, Kentula ME. An Evaluation of rapid methods for assessing the ecological condition of wetlands. Wetlands. 2007;27(3):543–560. Available:https://doi.org/10.1672/0277- 5212(2007)27[543:AEORMF]2.0.CO;
Fisher B, Kerry Turner R, Morling P. Defining and Classifying Ecosystem Services for Decision Making. Ecological Economics. 2009;68:643-653.
Moberg F, Folke C. Goods and services associated with coral reef ecosystems. Ecological Economics. 1999;29:215– 233.
Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P, Bengtsson J, Grime JP, Hector A, et al. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: Current knowledge and future challenges. Science. 2001;294:804–808.
Cowling RM, Mustart PJ, Laurie H, Richards MB. Species diversity: Functional diversity and functional redundancy in fynbos communities. South African Journal of Science. 1994;90(6): 333–337.
Naeem S. Species redundancy and ecosystem reliability. Conservation Biology. 1998;12:39–45.
Walker BH. Biodiversity and Ecological Redundancy. Conservation Biology. 1992; 6:18–23.
Jones CG, Lawton JH, Shachak M. Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos. 1994;69:373–386.
Power ME, Tilman D, Estes JA, Menge BA, Bond WJ, Mills LS, et al. Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience. 1996; 46:609–620.
Yachi S, Loreau M. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in a fluctuating environment: The insurance hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 1999;96:14-63.
Bennett EM, Petterson GD, Gordon LJ. Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecological Letters. 2009;12:1394-1404.
Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nyström M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J, Walker B, et al. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2003;1:488-494.
Lyons KG, Bringham CA, Traut BH, Schwartz MW. Rare species and ecosystem functioning. Conservation Biology. 2005;19:1019-1024.
Chapin FS, Zavaleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Reynolds HL, et al. Consequences of Changing Biodiversity. Nature. 2000;405:234-242.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: Current state and trends: Findings of the condition and trends working group. Island Press, Washington, DC; 2005.
Srivastava DS, Vellend M. Biodiversity-ecosystem function research: Is it relevant to conservation? Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics. 2005; 36:267-294.
UN FAO. Payments for ecosystem services and food security. UN FAO, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, Rome; 2011.
Lavorel S, Garnier E. Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: Revisiting the Holy Grail. Functional Ecology. 2002;16: 545-556.
Rey Benayas JM, Newton AC, Diaz A, Bullock JM. Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services by ecological restoration: A meta-analysis. Science. 2009;325:1121-1124.
Rodríguez JP, Beard TD, Bennett EM, Cumming GS, Cork SJ, Agard J, et al. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecology and Society. 2006;11(1):1–14.
Díaz SD, Tilman J, Fargione FS, Chapin R, Dirzo T, Kitzberger B, et al. Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services in ecosystems and human well-being. Island Press. 2005;297-329.
Abstract View: 371 times
PDF Download: 228 times