Asian Journal of Biology <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Asian Journal of Biology&nbsp;(ISSN: 2456-7124)</strong>&nbsp;is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJOB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Biology) (Asian Journal of Biology) Fri, 19 Nov 2021 06:19:10 +0000 OJS 60 Ecological Characterization of Invasive Alien Species and Associated Abiotic Factors of Three Islands in the Pool Malebo in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo <p>Nowadays, invasive alien species are causing more and more environmental problems in several water bodies around the world, in Africa and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In October 2020, a floristic inventory was carried out around three islands of the Congo River (Molondo, Mipongo and Japon) at the Pool Malebo in Kinshasa. The study focused on the identification and behavior of alien species along with associated abiotic factors in the Malebo Pool of the Congo River in Kinkole, Kinshasa.</p> <p>The study used a simple random sampling design to select different sites where samples were collected after a direct observation. We collected invasive species in the middle of the Congo River and to achieve that, we used canoe depending on the location of each site. Recorded species were classified either alien species or invasive alien species according to the status in the study region. The identification of collected species was performed according to APG III. Seeing the way these species invade the environment and how they disturb the ecology of rivers, the physico-chemical characteristics of waters were measured between 8:00 am and 3:00 pm with the appropriate electronic probe for each parameter. For each parameter, the comparison between the sites was carried out using the ANOVA test with XLSTAT 2013 software.</p> <p>The findings show that 19 species have been identified as invasive alien species out of which, four were dominant, namely <em>Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes</em>. Considering the physico-chemical parameters, no significant differences were observed for the temperature (F=0.42 and p=0.66), conductivity (F=1.55 and p=0.25) and turbidity (F=2.28 and p=0.14) for the three sites. While the pH (F=4.98; p=0.026; LSD=0.361), dissolved oxygen (F=12; p=0.001; LSD=3.65) and salinity (F=4.06; p= 0.04; LSD= 1.69) showed significant variation in the three sites. The formation of vegetation groups around these islands in the Congo River at the Pool Malebo in Kinshasa&nbsp; would also be justified by the influence of these parameters.</p> Michael Tshibangu Mukendi, Henri Kunzi Mbale, Pisco Munkolo Menga, Masens-da-Musa Yung, Jean Meti Ntumba, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Félicien Luyeye Lukoki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Constituents and Toxicity of the Ethanol Extract of Ricinus communis (L.) in Drosophila melanogaster <p>The study aimed to evaluate the toxic ability of the ethanol extract of <em>Ricinus</em><em> communis</em> (L.) in <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>&nbsp;fruit fly model. The toxicity was determined through different criteria, including the ability to cause harmful effects on second instar larvae, reproduction, growth and development, and the movement ability of fruit flies. The results showed that the ethanol extract of <em>Ricinus communis </em>expressed its high toxicity against 2<sup>nd</sup> instar larvae of <em>Drosophila melanogaste with the </em>LD<sub>50 </sub>value of 64.63 mg/mL. In addition, <em>Ricinus communis</em> extract reduced the growth rate, reproduction and decreased the movement ability of <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>. The total flavonoid and polyphenol content of the ethanol extract of <em>Ricinus communis</em> were 338.26 mgQE/g extract and 160.43 mgGAE/g extract, respectively. These findings contribute to confirming the toxic properties of ethanol extract of <em>Ricinus communis</em> and their potential use in preventing and controlling pest.</p> Tran Thi Tu Ai, Huynh Hong Phien, Tran Thanh Men ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Richardia brasiliensis Collected in Southern-Benin: Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the <em>R. brasiliensis </em>aerial part extracts collected in southern-Benin.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The phytochemical screening was performed by a differential precipitation staining method. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were made using conventional method with water and ethanol as solvent. The obtained extracts were used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity on <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>strains isolated from skin infections and ten reference strains by the solid-medium diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined by the liquid macro-dilution method. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was evaluated on <em>Artemia salina </em>larvae obtained by hatching.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The phytochemical screening showed a strong presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and a medium presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins and mucilage’s. The extraction yields vary according to the solvent: water (15.5%) and ethanol (10.30%). The two extracts variously (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) inhibited the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>strains isolated from skin infections and four reference strains (<em>Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Proteus mirabilis A24974, Escherichia coli ATCC25922</em>). However, there is no difference (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05) in inhibition of strains growth between 24h and 48h. The largest diameter (21±0.75 mm) of inhibition with the reference strains was obtained with <em>P. aeruginosa </em>by action of the aqueous extract. Regarding <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>strains isolated from skin infections, the largest diameter of inhibition is about 19.25±2.75 mm obtained with strains isolated from ulcers. The average mics of 2.81 mg/ml and 2.08 mg/ml were obtained respectively for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts in the presence of the reference strains. The LC50 determination obtained using the regression line is 0.36 mg/ml for the aqueous extract and 1.16 mg/ml for the ethanolic extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The aqueous extract is more effective because of its action spectrum. This extract can be used for the development of a soap or ointment to fight against skin infections.</p> Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Haziz Sina, Bawa Boya, Farid Bade, Tryphose Hounnou, Marius Eric Badoussi, Arlette Adjatin, Lamine Baba-Moussa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Heavy Metal Characteristics (Pb and Cu) in Wideng Crab Tissue from the Gonjol River, Demak <p><strong>Objective and Background:</strong> The Gonjol river serves as a lifeline for the communities surrounding Demak's brackish water ponds. Currently, factory waste is poisoning rivers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the levels of heavy metals Pb and Cu in Wideng crab tissue, water, and sediment in the Gonjol river's upper course and estuary.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was place from January to March 2020. Heavy metal concentration was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The linear regression method was used to analyze the data.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Except for Cu in upstream and estuary sediments, the concentration of Pb and Cu in the waters, sediments, and Wideng crab tissue remained below the acceptable limits. Heavy metals Pb and Cu in both sediment and tissue did not reveal a significant association in the upstream and estuary, although there was a correlation between water and tissue. There is no association between silt and water in the upstream and estuary. The river's quality is based on the Decree of the Minister of the Environment of the Republic of Indonesia No.115 of 2003, which places it in category C, which means it has moderate levels of Pb and Cu pollution. While tissue and sediment levels are below the tolerance limit<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The state of the Gonjol River is a source of concern, particularly the circumstances of Cu and Pb, which allow bioaccumulation in the future, posing a threat to the ecosystem and the communities surrounding it.</p> Hugi Cerlyawati, Slamet Isworo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Phytohormones and Alternative Sources on the Propagation of Ternstroemia cameroonensis Cheek. by Marcotting in the Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon <p>Marcotting is a method of vegetative propagation which still finds its relevance in the present day forest management and routine practice to produce viable seedlings for the regeneration of <em>Ternstroemia cameroonensis</em>. There is dearth of information regarding the propagation of <em>T. cameroonensis</em> by marcotting. Hence effects of phytohormone application (Indole-3-acetc acid, Indole-3-butyric acid) and alternative sources (coconut water) on the propagation of <em>T. cameroonensis</em> by marcotting were investigated in the Lebialem Highlands. Mortality rates, number of roots, root length as well as marcotts position in the crown was evaluated. The propagation trials were carried under natural environmental conditions. Marcotts had an overall survival percentage of 35.41%. Those established at the middle of the crown had the highest survival percentage (15.27%) followed by those at the lower (11.80 %). Also marcotts established on branches with larger diameter (4-6 cm) and shorter length (50 cm) had the highest survival percentage (20.13 and 19.44 respectively). Again marcotts treated with IBA and CW had the best performance compared to other pre-treatments. According to the result, <em>T. cameroonensis</em> can be amenable through marcotts.&nbsp;</p> Francoline Jong Nkemnkeng, Mendi Grace Anjah, Walter Ndam Tacham, Christiana Ngyete Nyikob Mbogue, Victor-François Nguetsop ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Protective Role of Different Local Spices on Lambda Cyhalothrin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Mice <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was aimed at evaluating the protective role of different local spices on lambda cyhalothrin induced nephrotoxicity in male mice</p> <p><strong>Experimental Design:</strong> A completely randomized experimental design using standard methods for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was carried out in the Animal house, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology of Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo Port Harcourt, Nigeria. GPS 4<sup>o</sup>47'50''N 6<sup>o</sup>58'49''E. This study lasted for 35days.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The experimental animals were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of seven mice each. Group A served as the control and Group B – F served as the test groups. At the end of the 35 day treatment period, feed was withdrawn from the mice 24 hours before termination of the experiment. Blood samples for analysis of kidney function test were collected from each mouse by ocular puncture into plain tubes. The blood was allowed to clot and centrifuged at 2500g to separate the serum from the cells. Total protein was analyzed using the spectrophotometric method of biuret, Bradford and erythrosine – b, albumin was estimated, creatinine and urea was done using enzymatic method. Vital organs were removed and weighed for organosomatic indices. Histological sections of the kidney were mounted on slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E). Photomicrographs were generated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There is no significant difference (P=0.05) between the organ weight and bodyweight in group A compared with the treatment groups. The values of Albumin, total protein, urea, creatinine and total bilirubin increased significantly in group B administered lambda cyhalothrin alone but decreased in groups administered the local spices. Histopathological analysis of the kidney shows the regular structure of the kidney architecture in group A, tubular degeneration and several vacuolations were observed in group B. However, less degeneration of the epithelial cells, regeneration of renal tubular epithelium were observed in groups C- F.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results from liver biomarkers and histological micrographs from this study, pronounced degeneration was observed in the kidney cells exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin only. Moreover, all spices used had a regenerating ability on the kidney tubules. It is advocated therefore that consumption of this spices either singly or in combination should be encouraged especially for those exposed to insecticides poisoning</p> Eme Efioanwan Orlu, Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000