Open Access Systematic Review Article

Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea Worm Disease) Elimination and Eradication and the Challenges of Emerging Non-human Animal Hosts: A Review of the Literature

M. O. Elom

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 39-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430115

The objective of the review is to update information on the recent state of the transmission of dracunculiasis. Dracunculiasis is an ancient debilitating disease that has been lingering among dwellers of rural communities in some neglected sub-tropical and tropical countries. The disease is transmitted through drinking water that has been infested with Cyclops, the intermediate host of D. medinensis. Guinea worm disease has neither medicine for cure nor vaccine for prevention but can be prevented using certain intervention strategies. Any person that lives in the affected localities and drinks from Cyclop-infested water bodies could be infected, irrespective of age, gender or social status. The disease cripples the economy of affected communities, as it reduces attendance to farm work and other occupations and renders students absent from schools, through incapacitation. Eradication of dracunculiasis has been targeted using health education, boiling of water before drinking, application of temephos (Abate) to drinking water sources, filtration of water before drinking and installation of boreholes for the endemic localities. Attempts for eradication of dracunculiasis had reached an impressive and significant level before the emergence of cases of non-human animal infections. This phenomenon has sustained transmission of the disease in a few African countries. Published articles in Pubmed, Medline, Google Scholar and DOAJ on Guinea worm elimination and eradication and those on animal infections with Guinea worm were reviewed using Google search engine between February and April 2020. Scale up of application of Abate to affected drinking water sources is recommended as the most reliable and sustainable intervention in highly neglected communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Indian Spinach (Basella spp L) Accessions Using RAPD Markers

Olalekan Ibrahim Sobowale, Benjamin Oluwole Akinyele, Alexander Chukwunweike Odiyi, Adeyela Ibironke Okunlola, Emmanuel Oluwakayode Ajayi, Omolara Loveth Aderonmu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430111

Background: Indian spinach is one of the important underexploited tropical leafy vegetables which have high nutritional and medicinal value. Molecular marker technology has greatly accelerated the process involved in breeding programs for the improvement of various crops and its techniques have been considered to be the most suitable means of estimating genetic diversity.

Aim: The study is to determine the genetic diversity among the accessions of Indian spinach collected from South western Nigeria using molecular markers.

Methodology: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assay 20 accessions of Indian spinach (Basella spp) collected from the south western states of Nigeria (Oyo, Osun, Ogun, Ondo and Ekiti).

Results: Results showed that RAPD markers were highly polymorphic and generated alleles ranging from two to eight. The polymorphic information content was highest for the OPT-17 primer (0.757) and the mean average was (4.23) Moreover, gene diversity (0.785) was high, and cluster analysis delineated the accessions into five groups, which indicated that a significant genetic diversity was present among the accessions studied. A dendrogram clustering method revealed five major clusters. Clusters I, II and IV had one accessions each, III had four and V had thirteen accessions.

Conclusion: The result revealed that RAPD markers are useful for genetic characterization as they provide information on the interspecific and phylogenetic statuses of the accessions. The markers also showed a genetic variability that could be exploited for varietal delineation and improvement of the vegetable in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Aqua Drugs Applied in Freshwater Aquaculture of Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh

Suranjit Singha, Tasnim Sultana, Nazmun Naher Rima, Md. Robiul Hasan, Ahsan Habib

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 22-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430113

Aims: Our study aimed to assess the current situation of accessibility and the use of various chemicals and medicines in freshwater aquaculture.

Methodology: A questionnaire interview survey was conducted among 14 aquaculture farms and 23 aqua chemical retailers.

Results: Due to easy availability, farmers used large quantities of lime and cow dung to prepare ponds and manage water quality. Beside these rotenone, zeolite gold, acme’s zeolite, aqua kleen, urea and TSP (triple super phosphate) are also found. Timsen, polgard-plus, deltix, virex, magic-fos and pond-safe were mostly used as a disinfectant. Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) disease was found predominantly in the farmer's pond. For disease treatment, renamycine soluble powder (oxy tetracycline) was used, 32% farmers. Two oxygen suppliers oxy gold and oxy life were used to increase oxygen concentration. Among 11 types of growth promoters were found in chemical shops in which charger gel and rapid grow were mostly used. Most farmers use gas trap and gasonex plus as gas reducer.

Conclusions: There are mostly six categories of 48 aqua drugs and chemicals are observed and treated for health monitoring of fish and shellfish. Due to lack of knowledge concerning the proper dosage and procedure of using chemicals, technique of application and indiscriminate practice of chemicals etc. are common problems of aqua drugs in Moulvibazar district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Community Perception on Mosquito-Borne Diseases between Urban and Rural Communities in Gombe State, Nigeria

Ezra Abba, Tabitha Paul, Kennedy Poloma Yoriyo, Blessing Chinwendu Emmanuel

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430114

Aims: This work is aimed at knowing the variation in community perception on mosquito-borne diseases between urban (Gombe) and rural (Filiya) of Gombe State.

Study Design: Each of the two communities was sectioned into longitudinal zones and 150 houses were then randomly selected from the zones in each of the communities for the administration of questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between April and June 2018 in Gombe and Filiya communities of Gombe state.

Methodology: Quantitative data were collected utilizing open-ended questionnaire covering 300 respondents.

Results: In Gombe (urban community) 98% of respondents had knowledge about mosquitos’ existence unlike Filiya (rural community) with 74%. Concerning mosquito-borne diseases, up to 92% of urban dwellers are aware of one or more mosquito-borne diseases compared to the rural respondent with 46% awareness. 68% of the urban respondents agreed that the frequent breeding places for mosquitoes are drains and polluted waters. On the other hand, 28% of the respondents from the rural community shared this view about the frequent breeding sites of the mosquitoes with the urban dwellers. More so, up to 34% of the rural respondent does not know mosquito breeding sites. Majority of the respondent in the urban areas relied on Nets for protection against mosquito bites while the rural respondent majorly uses coils. Only 36% of respondents in urban community source their treatment from Government health facility against 12% in the rural community. Half of the respondent in the rural community sought treatment from one source or the other.

Conclusion: The popular Mosquito-Borne disease is malaria. Most people have a fair knowledge about malaria prevention and control and see malaria as a threat to their lives and community but the majority had poor practices towards malaria prevention and control. The government should intensify the campaign against malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Optimization of Culture Conditions and Medium Components for the Production of Mycelial Biomass of Auricularia delicata under Submerged Fermentation

Muharagi Samwel Jacob, Li Xiao, Mabagala Frank Stephano, Xu Anran

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 56-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430117

Aims: To optimize the culture conditions and medium components for the production of mycelial biomass of A. delicata under submerged fermentation.

Place and Duration of Study: China–Zambia Agricultural demonstration center and Engineering Research Center of Chinese Ministry of Education for Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Jilin Agricultural University, China between July 2019 and June 2020.

Methodology: In this study, a single factor at a time method was employed in the optimization of submerged culture conditions and medium components for the production of mycelial biomass of A. delicata (strain YD 99). Each factor was screened independently while other factors were kept constant.

Results: The findings of this study demonstrate that the optimal culture conditions obtained were as follows: carbon source (Glucose) 20 gl-1, pH 6.0, nitrogen source (Yeast extract) 2 gl-1, mineral elements (K2HPO4+MgSO4.7H20) 2gl-1, and incubation temperature 25°C. The application of these optimal culture conditions produced a maximum concentration of 7.34gl-1 mycelial biomass of A. delicata.

Conclusion: Consequently, our results indicated that the optimization of culture conditions and medium components is of significant importance for the cultivation of A. delicata.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effectiveness of Pistia stratiotes as Phytoremediation Agents in Reducing Lead (Pb) Levels in Batik Household Industrial Wastewater in Bakaran Village, Central Java-Indonesia

Khabibatulloh Dewi Kaswari Ratna, Isworo Slamet

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 68-73
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430126

Background and Objectives: The Bakaran Batik industry is engaged in domestic textiles in Juwana district, Indonesia. The wastewater produced by the burnt batik is discharged into the environment without going through any prior treatment. Therefore, an effective and easy-to-implement processing technology is needed by the community. Phytoremediation technology is an effort to treat waste that is proven to be effective and easy to implement. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Pistia stratiotes in reducing Lead (Pb) levels in batik wastewater.

Methodology: The method used in this research is the type of experimental research. The research method is True Experimental with Post-test Only Control Group Design. The statistical test used is One Way Anova and linear regression test to determine the rate of degradation.

Results: showed that the Pistia stratiotes was effective in reducing lead levels of Lead (Pb) from an initial concentration of 0.042 ppm to 0.022 on a day for 48 hours, the speed of degradation was based on the linear equation - 0.0108x + 0.048, R² = 0.8526 in the treatment with Pistia stratiotes 50 grams, whereas in the 75 grams and 90 grams the Lead (Pb) concentration was not detected. Conclusions: Phytoremediation with the biological agent Pistia stratiotes is quite effective in degrading Lead (Pb) -containing batik waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus globulus Leaves against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch

J. Ngongo-Kapenga, S. Minga Kwete, S. Yefile-Mposhi, A. Kalonji-Mbangila, G. Mulumba-Badibanga, A. Ngombo-Nzokwani, N. Kalonji-Kabemba, B. Kalala Kalala, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, M. Muengula-Manyi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430127

Aim: To assess in laboratory conditions, the efficacy of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus leaves against the infestation due to maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais, the main insect pest of stored maize grains.  

Study Design: This study was conducted as two separate trials. Each trial was performed using a completely randomized design with 5 treatments repeated 3 times.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the laboratory Unit of Phytopathology and Crop protection, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Kinshasa, between February and April 2018. 

Methodology: Two trials (in Petri dishes and in cotton bags) were conducted separately from each other, while treatments used were the same. Trials were conducted according to a completely randomized design with 5 treatments repeated 3 times. Treatments used corresponded to 5 different volumes (0, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ml) of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus leaves. In each trial, data collected were the rate of S. zeamais mortality and percentage of maize grains damaged. 

Results: In general, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P<0.05) among treatments used. There was variation over time of the percentage of S. zeamais mortality as a function of the volume of essential oil of E. globulus. The volume of 30ml of essential oil caused higher mortality compared to other treatments. The percentage of maize grains damaged increased on control, while it decreased on maize grains treated with essential oil of E. globulus leaves.     

Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that essential oil of E. globulus leaves can help to protect maize grains stored against infestation due to maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluate the Effects of Potential Botanical and Conventional Insecticides on the Reproductive and Developmental Aspects of the Pest Agrotis Ipsilion (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Mohamed Ahmed Gesraha, Amany Ramadan Ebeid

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 83-91
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430128

Background: Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfn.), is known as a hazardous destructive pest for corn, Zea mays (L.) in Egypt, where it negatively affects corn yield production. Using insecticides continuously were sharply affected the progress of pest development in the field. The frequent uses of chemical pesticides to protect field crops leads to the development of insecticide-resistant strains.

Aim: Evaluate the insecticidal effect of four plant extracts with insecticidal properties and a chemical insecticide to control A. ipsilon using biological parameters and fertility life table. Also, to estimate the effects of these insecticidal materials on population growth, developmental progress, and nutritional indices and hence make recommendation of the type of insecticides to be used in Integrated Pest Management Programs.

Methodology: 1- Tested materials: (1) chemical insecticide (Chlorfenapyr at 0.5% concentration). (2) Four plant extracts (petroleum ether extracts of both Melia azedarach and Vinca rosea, and alcohol & hexane extracts of Conyza aegyptiaca) at 5% concentration each.

2- Tested insect: Agrotis ipsilon (the egg stage and the 4th larval instar).

3- Bioassay: Eggs and larvae were treated with tested materials separately, then different biological parameters were calculated.

4- Life table parameters: Life table parameters were calculate using  the “Age-stage, two-sex life tables” computer program.

Results: The obtained data revealed that petroleum ether extracts of V. rosea and M. azedarach were the best antifeedant agents against the 4th larval instar of A. ipsilon. The female longevity was significantly shortened under the effect of both treatments of M. azedarach and Challenger insecticide. All tested materials reflected an effective decline in the female ability for laying eggs, where this effect was obvious in the case of M. azedarach and Challenger insecticide treatments. It was found that the Melia treatment prolonged the incubation and developmental periods for the immature stages leading to a reduction of some life table parameters of A. ipsilon and also increase the generation mean time.

Conclusion: The resultant data obtained in this work may help in the usage of plant extracts in the advancement of IPM programs for the greasy cutworm, (Agrotis ipsilon) in Egypt.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Research Progress and Current Understanding of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Shwetha Krishna, Nandini Eswaran

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430112

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large group of enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA that have characteristic spikes projecting from their surface. CoVs are well known for their large RNA genome (26-32 kb). They primarily affect mammals and birds, causing infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. The emergence of human CoVs (HCoVs) has been reported once every ten years for the last three decades. The most recent emergence occurred in December 2019, when a new strain of CoVs named SARS-CoV-2 caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leaving a devastating impact on the global healthcare. The early cases were associated with the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, although the exact origin of the virus is still being debated. Phylogenetic analysis reveals bats to be the reservoir hosts, but the intermediate host responsible for spill-over into the human population remains debatable. Accumulating evidence cites pangolins based on the similarity of receptor binding domain in spike protein; however, the search for a conclusive intermediate host that aided in the inter-species crossover is still underway. Advances have been made in our understanding of the functions of each structural protein, but certain non-structural proteins and accessory proteins are yet to be characterised. Owing to the large genetic diversity of CoVs that arise through recombination, genetic variation, or gene gains/losses, future re-emergence of CoVs are most likely.  In this review, we provide an introduction to CoVs and discuss the origin, virology, genetics, phylogeny, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 based on relevant literature.

Open Access Review Article

Diversity of Amphibians and Reptiles at Chiremera Locality, Vanduzi - Mozambique

António C. Manhice, Crizalda E. Simões, Moreno L. Zondane

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 49-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i430116

Diversity of amphibians and reptiles was studied at Chiremera locality in Manica Province, Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, no herpetofauna study has been done at the Chiremera locality. Globally the herpetofauna of Mozambique remains poorly documented compared to other areas of southern Africa [1]. The study aims to assess the diversity of amphibians and reptiles at Chiremera locality. The data was collected using two techniques: Visual Search and Intercept and pit fall traps. The data was collected in two habitat types: wild areas and human altered areas. We recorded on the wild areas 91 individual of amphibians (18 species, 10 genera and 9 families). The human altered areas had a total of 27 individual amphibians, (4 species, 4 genera and 4 families). Hemisus marmoratus (marbled snout-burrower) was the most abundant species in the two habitats, accounting for 26.3% of all individuals identified. The Shannon winner of amphibians was higher at the wild areas (H '= 2, 1) and lower in the human altered area (H' = 1, 2). A total of 24 individual reptiles were recorded on the wild areas (7 species, 7 genera and 5 families). In contrast to human altered areas we recorded (5 species, 3 Genera, and 3 families). Bitis arietans (puff adder) was the most abundant reptile accounting for 26% of all individuals identified. The Shannon wiener of reptiles was (H’=1, 6) at the wild areas and (H’=1, 5) at the human altered areas. Four rare species namely Hyperolius acuticeps (sharp-headed long reed frog), Hyperolius benguellensis (Benguella long reed frog), Ptychadena subpunctata (spotted ridged frog) all amphibians and Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra) - reptile were detected during our study. The result of the current study revealed that effect of human altered areas on the richness and abundance of amphibians and reptiles.