Open Access Short Research Article

Action Research Addressing the Implementation of Life Skills Education on Adolescent Reproductive Sexual Health (Teenage Pregnancy, Sexual Activities, STIs, HIV/AIDs) for the Positive Behavioural Outcome

Lhawang Norbu, Namchu Gurung

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 7-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i230181

Sexual health is a serious public health concern with long-term implications on health and fertility. Improving the sexual health of our teenagers and preventing teenage pregnancy is a national priority that the current government of Bhutan with the help of concern stakeholders aim to reduce teenage conception rate and sexually transmitted infections by 2022 to the minimum. If we are to achieve this ambitious target, parents, teachers and paediatricians need to consider the sexual health needs of our teenage population and recognize times where we are able to offer advice, screening or signposting. As increasing number of Bhutanese youths are becoming victim of teenage pregnancy and STIs. The study was aimed to make awareness to our youth to improve their understanding on adolescent reproductive sexual health (teenage pregnancy, sexual activities STIs, HIV/AIDs) for positive behavioural outcome. Therefore, imparting applicable life skills education to our young minds has become indispensable to curb the aforementioned issues. The study was carried out in Ura Central School, Bhutan. The participants of the study consisted of 61 studying in class VIII and X and 25 teachers. The study adopted mixed method; quantitative approach included survey whereas for qualitative approach included semi-structured interview. Survey data were collected from 61 students and 25 teachers whereas interview data were collected from 10 students and 5 teachers. The study found the intervention (awareness programme via teaching, roleplay, discussion) effective with students in the post-data showing better understanding of the students regarding teenage pregnancy, sexual activities and STIs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenological Study of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.) Growing in Ihiala, Anambra State, South-East Nigeria

Ochia, M. Angela, Ekwealor, U. Kenneth, Njom S. Victor, Mbaukwu A. Onyinye, Iroka, F. Chisom

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i230180

The aim of the study was to provide a phenological data and baseline information on the phenology of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. The study was conducted with exotic species at Ihiala, South-East, Nigeria, a tropical climate. The initiation and completion of different phenophases of the tree, such as budding, leafing, flowering, fruiting and ripening were recorded at two weeks interval. The combination of the principal growth stages and the secondary growth stages produced 2-digit codes, were used to delineate the time-dependent phenophases. The results revealed that E. guineensis showed a cyclical and seasonal appearance of the phenophases observed in the course of the year. Bud formation and leaf development phenophases were very gradual and steady across the months observed. Peak flowering time of August through November and peak ripening time of April was recorded in this study. Also, the study revealed that difference existed in the extent of phenophases of the observed species. The study also showed that E. guineensis belong to the family (Arecaceae) had different time frames for the phenophases. It is concluded that the phenological records obtained from the study can be very useful in planning and management of orchards, and can provide reference records in tracing changes in the phenology of E. guineensis in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of the Degradation Power of Aspergillus flavus DFSP.J1 and Aspergillus niger DFSP. J4 in Degrading Sago Bioplastics

Tri Gunaedi, Arsyam Mawardi, Fawuni G. A. G. Rumbrawer

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i230182

Bioplastics made from sago flour have the potential to be developed into plastic-based industrial materials that are environmentally friendly and easily degraded by microorganisms. A. flavus DSFP.J1 and A. niger DFSP.J4 are microorganisms from a type of fungus that are proven to be able to degrade sago bioplastics, but have not yet obtained optimal degradation power. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain optimal conditions of the two isolates of fungi in degrading bioplastics made from sago flour at variable inoculum concentrations of 10, 20, 30,40, 50% v/w. The manufacture of sago bioplastics is done by adding acetic acid as a catalyst and added glycerol to form plastic properties in 15% sago flour, after being formed and cut to a size of 1 cm2. Observations to determine the degradation power were carried out after an incubation period of seven days to the next five weeks. The results obtained showed that the optimal conditions of A. flavus DFSP.J1 and in degrading sago bioplastics at 40% inoculum concentration with a degradation power of 56.52% in the fifth week of observation and tended to increase the degradation power on the following day, as well as A. niger DFSP.J4 optimally degrades at 30% inoculum concentration with a degradation power of 55.90% in the fifth week of observation.  The results of the research, it can be concluded. Both the fungus A. flavus DFSP. J1 and A. niger  DFSP.J4 showed that potentialy to be developed for further research to increase its degradation power higher and faster.

Open Access Original Research Article

Invitro Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Glyphosate and 2, 2 Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate on Bacterial Isolates

C. O. Anuniru, J. N. Ogbulie, C. C. Opurum, E. S. Asiwe

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i230183

The in vitro toxicity of glyphosate (Gly) and 2, 2 Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) single compound and binary mixtures was assessed against Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. isolated from Otamiri River, Imo state, Nigeria was investigated. The toxicity response was assessed using the inhibitory effect of the single and binary mixtures on isolates dehydrogenase activity; and 2,3,5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used as the artificial electron acceptor. The binary mixtures were composed using fixed ratios of glyphosate and 2, 2 Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate in ratios of 20% Gly:80% DDVP, 40% Gly: 60% DDVP, 50% Gly: 50% DDVP, 60% Gly: 40% DDVP and 80% Gly: 20% DDVP. Results obtained showed that the isolates exhibited different degrees of logistic and sigmoidal toxicity trends with areas of hormesis at low concentrations of the toxicants. Furthermore, isobolographic analysis on the toxic interaction of the mixtures presented both synergism and antagonism, based on the relative ratio of the component mixtures. Increasing concentration of glyphosate in the binary mixture caused a shift in the interaction effect from antagonism to synergism. Our findings showed that isolates exhibited tolerance to glyphosate and 2,2 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate and their binary mixtures exposure at concentration range of 0-1000mg/L; above which has deleterious effects on the aquatic organisms. It is evident that there are considerable differences in pesticide sensitivity among the bacterial species and that the presence of glyphosate and 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate in the aquatic environment may present toxicological risk to microbial diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Changes of Some Metabolites in Hyoscyamus boveanus (Dunal) Asch. & Schweinf – Saint Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt

Karima Mohamed El-Absy

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 49-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i230184

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of seasonal fluctuations on some metabolites and to explore the correlation between soil and plant analysis in Hyoscyamus boveanus (H.boveanus) at the Wadi El-Sheikh Awad in Saint Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for physical and chemical properties of the soil associated with H. boveanus during 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, which increased most of them during the first depth. All chemical composition contents of H. boveanus are influenced significantly (p < 0.05) by seasons studied, except Na+, glycosides, total phenol, crude protein contents. A substantial increase in mineral composition (Na+, K+, P and Fe2+), total alkaloids, glycosides, total phenol, proline, total carbohydrates and all photosynthetic pigments contents were recorded in H. boveanus during the summer season. While, the mineral composition (Ca2+, Mg2+, S, N and Cl-), water content and crude protein contents appeared to be higher in the winter season. The relationships between soil and plant variables were delineated by performing the principal component analysis (PCA). The PC1 and PC2 displayed differences between the soil and plant variables, also, the variables Mg2+, Cl-, pH, EC, Ca2+ and K+ in the soil associated with H. boveanus are variables with better chemical properties of the soil, which affect the plant distribution in Wadi El-Sheikh Awad during the two seasons. The PCA revealed high positive correlations among soil variables as well as among plant variables. Soil magnesium correlated highly and positively with the plant variables i.e., crude protein, water content, Chl b, Chl a+b, carotein and total pigment contents. The pH, EC, and Ca2+ in soil were positively correlated with all chemical composition contents of H. boveanus. Some metabolites in H. boveanus were significantly increased during the summer season compared to the other season, due to the activation of plant physiological stress tolerance mechanisms.